Working papers provide students and scholars access to cutting-edge research in their field – often years before it’s published
A post in the What Researchers Need series.
While traditional peer-reviewed journal content remains an essential source of information for researchers, a recent ProQuest survey indicates that research and teaching is informed by a diverse mix of content types.
One of the most valued content types was working papers, used by 70% of the 410 researchers around the world who responded to our survey. The importance of working papers is not lost on lecturers, either. An even greater number of them – 77% – recommend working papers to student researchers.
Why are working papers in demand?
Working papers often contain the very latest research in a field. Because they have not gone through the peer-review process of journal articles – which can take 2 or 3 years – working papers can deliver the most cutting-edge information to researchers. Having access to the most recent developments can be crucial to researchers in many disciplines.
Indexing on the ProQuest platform makes this content easily discoverable. A researcher can search for a specific paper or topic, or they might find a working paper in a search for related content. This kind of serendipitous discovery can inspire deeper research insights, open valuable new avenues of scholarly exploration, or help researchers avoid duplicating existing research.
Additionally, the content of a paper might reappear as an article in a peer-reviewed scholarly journal years after initial publication as a working paper. For example, this article was published in the American Journal of Public Health in August 2016, but a working paper based on this research could be found on IDEAS working papers repository as early as 2014.
Examples of recent working papers that can be found via ProQuest
Political elections and uncertainty - Are BRICS markets equally exposed to Trump’s agenda?
Jamal Bouoiyour and Refk Selmi.
The Costs and Benefits of Leaving the EU: Trade Effects
Swati Dhingra, Hanwei Huang, Gianmarco Ottaviano, João Paulo Pessoa, Thomas Sampson and John Van Reenen
The economics of German unification after twenty-five years: Lessons for Korea
Michael C. Burda and Mark Weder
The importance of a making diverse content accessible
Working papers are not the only content type that allows researchers to see the very latest thinking in their field. Dissertations and conference proceedings also showcase scholarly work, and were used by 73% and 69% of respondents respectively. Blog posts are also growing in importance, 61% of respondents say that they use blogs, compared to only 37% in 2015 – one of the most significant differences between our 2015 and 2017 surveys.
Find out more about the survey results and learn about the changing information needs of researchers.
It is the central document of every application and the testament of your previous academic training: the dissertation expos� or proposal. The proposal is your opportunity to define a framework for your research project, establish a working schedule and do important groundwork for a successful dissertation.
The topic: This is where you define the objectives and the guiding questions you are trying to answer in your project. Whether you are dealing with political resistance in Franco's Spain or the synthesis of metal oxide materials - when it comes to the legitimization of the topic the key issues are almost always the same. Besides setting the thematic boundaries of your project you need to explain how your work relates to the existing research and describe its current relevance within the academic world. In other words, you need to explain where you see the knowledge gap and why right now is the right time to close that gap. Depending on your field, you may also need to develop hypotheses on the potential outcomes of your study in the dissertation proposal. Remember: Always align your expos� with the research specialties of the graduate school that you are applying to. Your application will only be successful if your project fits into the graduate school's program. It is also important to work according to academic standards right away, i.e. to include footnotes or reference sources in parentheses.
The method: Many academics have a hate-love relationship with the theoretic portion of their dissertation. On the one hand, a well-chosen methodology is the foundation of a successful dissertation; on the other it is a tedious distraction from the real research work. However, the fact of the matter is that no scholar of any discipline will succeed without a solid methodology. Therefore, you should carefully consider which method or theory you want to utilize and how you want to test your hypotheses. Develop a sound reasoning for your approach. Part of the methodology is the definition and operationalization of all pertinent terms, i.e. an explanation of how you plan to use them throughout the dissertation. While all that sounds complicated it is worth remembering that unlike the dissertation itself, the methodology is not exercise in academic innovation - you do not need to reinvent the wheel. Therefore, it makes complete sense to check how other scholars in the past have approached questions similar to your own and it is legitimate to reference those approaches in the dissertation expos�. That saves time and shows your understanding of the academic process.
Outline and schedule: Both outline and schedule are always hypothetical. Nobody knows what the lab results will be, which surprises are awaiting you in the archives or what will come out of the interviews that are the basis of your dissertation. Nonetheless, a well-conceived outline and a coherent schedule are incredibly important for the assessment of your dissertation project. Many German graduate schools aim to produce PhDs within three years. If your dissertation expos� is too extensive or too unorganized to make such a timetable realistic, chances are your application will be rejected. Therefore you need to develop a concept, which lays out step-by-step how you plan on answering your questions or how you want to test your hypotheses. Rather than proposing a project that is too extensive just to impress the selection committee, it makes sense to submit a more conservative expos� that is comparable to previous expos�s submitted by older PhD students.
The format: Just like any academic work of this size, the expos� should start with a title page that lists information about yourself (name, date of birth, email address, address, phone number, etc.) as well as a provisional title for the dissertation project. A table of contents on the next page should provide an overview of all the sections contained in the proposal. You also need to make sure to have a consistent, professional layout (font, line spacing, etc.) and include page numbers. Finally, you should review the style of writing to make the text as eloquent as possible and ensure that no spelling errors ruin the positive assessment of your application.
Bibliography: Each dissertation expos� must of course end with a bibliography of all sources quoted in the text. It might also be helpful to list some important texts from your research area even if you did not explicitly cite them. Ideally, you not only identified such texts during the preparation of your expos� but also read them. After all, you may well be asked about them during the interview.
Apply to a German Graduate School - Application-Guide
Curriculum Vitae (PDF)�
Letter of Motivation�
Language & Admissions-Test�
academics :: January 2014
How to assess your expos�
- Academic substance of the project
- Good source material
- Academic relevance
- Compatibility with the graduate school's priorities
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